Xerosis of the skin means abnormal dryness of the skin caused by a decrease in the secretion of the sebaceous and sweat glands, a violation of the hydrolipid balance, and a lack of amino acids in the stratum corneum. All of the above is accompanied by a feeling of discomfort, itching and is the cause of inflammatory skin diseases, leading to social maladjustment of the patient.
Skin xerosis is a pathognomonic manifestation of many types of dermatological pathology: atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, ichthyosis, psoriasis, irritant hand eczema and others. In addition, the occurrence of xerosis is facilitated by: chemical action on the skin of cosmetics and detergents; unfavorable living conditions; increased insolation; exposure to air pollutants; malnutrition; hypovitaminosis; regular use of hot water for washing; non-observance of the regime of work and rest; chronic diseases of internal organs; long-term use of glucocorticoid drugs locally and systemically.
Diagnostics of the skin xerosis
It includes the collection of anamnestic data allowing to establish the root cause of dryness, the affected areas of the skin are examined, which have a characteristic appearance: dry, rough, in the form of pityriasis scales, mainly on the extensor surfaces of the limbs. If necessary, a complex of laboratory and instrumental diagnostic measures is carried out, in each case determined individually.
Treatment of skin xerosis
In the treatment of skin xerosis, limiting the factors causing this condition is of paramount importance. Against this background, it is quite important to have an adequate drinking regime and balanced nutrition, cessation of tobacco smoking and alcoholic excesses, and limitation of insolation. It is extremely important that moisturizers and emollients applied to dry skin must be formulated to match the lipids of healthy skin. The use of moisturizers is also necessary during periods of absence of xerotic symptoms. It seems justified to use moisturizers in combination with topical corticosteroids for xerosis in combination with atopic dermatitis.
Persons with thin skin are prone to xerosis. Xerosis is common in the elderly, as well as in those who, by the nature of their professional activities, often wash themselves, especially with alkaline detergents. There are also congenital forms of xerosis.