Alopecia areata is a process of progressive hair loss on the scalp or other hairy areas of the skin. The considered form of pathology rarely leads to complete baldness of the patient. The areas of complete absence of hair alternate with areas of healthy hair. The main cause of alopecia areata is stressful conditions in which adults and children are. Pathology develops equally often in men and women. The condition of focal alopecia does not threaten the health of patients, but is considered by them as a pronounced cosmetic defect.
Alopecia areata (alopecia areata)
A close examination of the affected area allows you to see the mouth of the hair follicles. Peripheral growth of alopecia areata can lead to their fusion. The edge of the "nest" contains loose hair that falls out with little exposure. Their roots are devoid of pigmentation. The hair ends in a thickening in the form of a white point. The absence of this symptom indicates that alopecia areata has ceased to progress and has passed into the stationary stage.
The diagnosis is made during the examination of the patient by a trichologist. The doctor notes a decrease in the density of the hairline and the appearance of areas of complete baldness. A mechanical test is carried out - pulling the hair shaft leads to its easy removal from the place of growth.
Identifying the causes of alopecia will allow the doctor to develop an effective course of treatment. The patient receives a referral for tests. Laboratory tests of the blood of a child or adult will reveal a reduced number of T and B lymphocytes. Their lack is characteristic of alopecia areata, which arose against the background of psychoemotional stress.
Hair shaft microscopy allows excluding mycoses from the patient's history. Often, trichologists perform a skin biopsy of the alopecia areata. Examination of a biopsy under a microscope makes it possible to detect signs of systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, or lichen planus. Spectral analysis of hair provides information about their saturation with trace elements.
Compliance with the rules of hygiene is an important aspect of the treatment of alopecia. The focal form of pathology allows you to wash your hair daily (which is unacceptable for seborrheic lesions of the scalp). Patients should use neutral shampoos that do not contain emollients or other complex ingredients.
Individuals suffering from alopecia areata are prescribed oral intake of vitamins and minerals. This measure is designed to normalize metabolic processes in the body of a child or adult and stimulate hair growth.